Cooking Methods

Category : REFERENCE GUIDE

Author: David

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Cooking methods are divided into three categories – dry-heat, moist-heat, and combination-heat. By understanding the cooking methods one can choose the correct method required for specific foods.

Various methods of cooking have a direct impact on the outcome of the finished dish. Choosing the correct method not only affects the flavor of foods but also the texture and appearance.

Cooking Methods

DRY HEAT COOKING METHOD

This method cooks the food with hot air or fat. It’s rather a quick process that adds crispness and flavor to the food.

EXAMPLES OF THIS METHOD ARE FOODS USED FOR THIS METHOD ARE
Sautéing

Pan-frying and Deep-frying

Grilling and Broiling

Roasting and Baking

Thin, tender cuts of meat such as chops and cutlets.

Ground meats

Most seafood

Most vegetables

Cooking Methods

DEFINITION, SIMILARITIES, AND DIFFERENCES OF DRY HEAT COOKING METHOD

COOKING METHODS DESCRIPTION
SAUTEING There should be just a thin coating of fat in the pan (about 1/8th inch). Sauteing uses conduction to transfer the heat from the hot pan to the food.
PAN – FRYING The food should be partially submerged in fat. The fat should cover approximately 1/3 to 1/2 of the product which is to be cooked.
DEEP – FRYING To deep-fry, the food is entirely submerged in hot fat. Heat is transferred to the food in deep-frying through the conduction of the hot fat which surrounds the food.

SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SAUTEING, PAN-FRYING AND DEEP – FRYING

DIFFERENCE- The amount of fat. SIMILARITY- They all use hot fat to cook the food.

SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GRILLING AND BOILING

Though these terms are often used interchangeably, they are distinctly different.
While both use a radiant heat transfer, the heat source from grilling comes from the bottom, or underneath the food, whereas the heat source from broiling is on top, or above the food.

SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ROASTING AND BAKING

Roasting and baking are basically the same thing; the difference is in terminology. Generally speaking, meats, poultry, large fish, and vegetables are roasted.
Baking is generally applied to breads, pastries and other sweet confections. Heat is transferred to the surface of the food through the convection of hot air, and then penetrates the food through conduction.

Cooking Methods

MOIST HEAT COOKING METHOD

This method cooks food with a liquid – usually water, stock or steam.

EXAMPLES OF THIS METHOD ARE FOODS USED FOR THIS METHOD ARE
Poaching

Simmering

Boiling

Steaming

Tender cuts of poultry, such as chicken breasts.

Starches and pasta

Some fruits
Most seafood

Most vegetables

DEFINITION, SIMILARITIES, AND DIFFERENCES OF MOIST HEAT COOKING METHOD

COOKING METHODS DESCRIPTION
Poaching In poaching – the liquid will “shiver” slightly, but there should be no visible bubbling.
Simmering In simmering – there will be small bubbles breaking the liquid’s surface.
Boiling In boiling – there will be large bubbles breaking the surface and a large amount of movement in the liquid.
Steaming In order to create steam, water has to be at 212°F or higher. When steaming- the food is in contact with the steam only but if submerged in a liquid it is considered poaching, simmering or boiling.
SIMILARITY – They are all moist-heat cooking methods and they all use convection as the mode of heat transfer.
DIFFERENCE – Is in the temperature of the liquid and steam.

COMBINATION COOKING METHOD

As the name suggests, this method uses a combination of dry heat and moist heat in cooking. This method has the ability to break down naturally tough cuts of meat because of the long, slow cooking period.

EXAMPLES OF THIS METHOD ARE FOODS USED FOR THIS METHOD ARE
Braising

Stewing

Tough meats.

Certain seafood’s like swordfish or tuna.

Some vegetables

SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES OF COMBINATION COOKING METHOD

SIMILARITIES DIFFERENCES
Braising and stewing are similar- both entail first sauteing the item, then adding liquid and simmering. The difference is in the terminology. Generally foods that are cut up or diced are referred to as a stew, whereas in larger items like poultry legs, pork-chops, pot roast, etc. this term is referred to as braised.

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